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Format: APA, Pages: 1
Central Argument of Abolitionism Theory and the consequences of the theory.Order instructions from the customer
What is the central argument of abolitionism? Do you agree with this theory? Why or why not? What have been the consequences of abolitionism?
In part as a result of the crime problems associated with the disruption to the grand dream of unified Europe, and in part as continuation of efforts begun in 1973 by the European group of the study of Deviance and social control, the late 1990s saw the birth of a "new European criminology" (Ruggiero et Al., 1998). One of its objectives, loosely stated, was to maintain an exchange of criminological communication and comparisons across Europe that, rather than contribute to free market liberalism, would contribute to developing a European public sphere that emphasizes a sharing of experiences. A second objective was to develop a European criminological community that would "help develop an understanding of trends and concerns in Europe"(p.10). Shortly thereafter, in 2000, the European society of criminology (ESC) was established, and one year late it held its first annual meeting in Lausanne. In 2004, the ESC published the first issue of its European Journal of criminology. Today, European criminology is experiencing great vitality and diversity. One example of this vitality and diversity is found in "abolitionism".
There is no concrete definition of abolitionism (brushett, 2010). To a large degree, this approach is an example of European criminology whose advocates are based in England, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. Until recently it was neglected in the United States where it has modest support. Similar to new criminology/left realism, abolitionism's origins sprang from changing context, but it has a few closely related points of emphasis. According to one observer, the modern abolitionist perspective was nurtured by critical criminology and birthed in some of the Scandinavian countries during the 1960s (Tierney, 1996, p. 132). One of its major current contributors, however, locates its origin in the anti-slavery movement mentioned earlier in this chapter (Van Swaaningen, 1997, p. 116). At this juncture --- 40 years after it started --- abolitionism comes in two forms: general and restricted.
A central tenet of general abolitionism is that punishment never is justified because it is a form of social control that is based on the faulty logic that the infliction of pain will prevent crime. Furthermore, this form of abolitionism argues that the criminal justice system as whole is a social problem that should be dismantled and replaced with alternative dispute resolution (Brushett, 2010). These concepts reflect not only the idea that traditional incarceration is destructive to individuals and the community but also that justice should be founded on social and economic concerns for all of its victims and victimizers (Knopp, 1991). This point is especially compatible with peace-making criminology emphasis on mediation, conciliation, and dispute settlement. Restricted abolitionism deals with the elimination of specific aspects of the criminal justice system (Brushett, 2010). Prisons, it argued, are a form of violence that should be destroyed because they reflected "a social ethos of violence and degradation" (Thomas & Boehlefeld, 1991, p. 242) and because they do not prevent recidivism. One of the primary purposes of prisons, it is argued, is to control the least productive members of society.
Restricted abolitionists argue that prisons should be replaced, or at least decentralized, by democratic community control and community based treatment that would emphasize "redness" or " restorative justice".
Whereas the abolition of prisons has not been accomplished in any major industrial nation, there are " several major groups strongly backing penal abolition including Britain's Radical Alternatives to prisons (RAP), the Norwegian Association for Penal Reform (KROM), the Danish Association for Penal Reform (KRIM), and the Swedish Association for Penal Reform"(Brushett,2010, p.2).
Consequences of abolitionism:
Similar to other reformist schools of critical criminology, abolitionism has been criticized for being romantic, for being imprecise, and for lacking a well-grounded theoretical opposition to punishment (Thomas & Boehlefeld, 1991). Or, in the words of Hudson (1998), abolition has a "vision without a strategy". In particular, it does not have practical plans for dealing with dangerous predatory criminals. Nevertheless, it has made significant contributions, such as Christie's (1981) eloquent critique of the limitations of conventional punishment and his (1993, 1997, 2001) insightful analysis of crime control as industry--- an argument that has had three editions. In the United States, Angela Davis (2003, 2005) lent her critical anti-racism voice to making the case for the abolition of prisons and torture. Nonetheless, "abolitionism is still a perspective that is structured primarily by analogies and metaphors" (Brushett, 2010, p.2). Abolitionism is but one potent critical criminological perspective.
The voices of critical theorists are highly valued as they continue to question the domain assumptions that criminologists and politicians tend to take for granted when explaining the causes of crime. Their contributions are no less valuable when it comes to questioning response to crime. Worthy of special note here are the now widely accepted and deeply respected contributions for feminist perspectives on crime. Equally significant are the contributions from what was once called "new criminology", from left realism, and from European-based abolitionism.
Energy Sources in Sweden
Format: APA Pages: 1
Energy Sources in SwedenOrder instructions from the customer
Identify the main sources of energy used there at the moment. Identify what renewable sources of energy are being used there at the moment and discover what energy sources are planned for future. check to see if there are energy conservation plans for your country.
(my country is UAE, United Arab of Emirates)
The Federalist Papers
Format: MLA Pages: 5
The Federalist PapersOrder instructions from the customer
Times new roman
I will provide one source, you just need to analysis it, and you do not have to read all of it.
Preferred language style: US English
The Anti-Federalist Papers were compiled by Founding Fathers who mistrusted the idea of a strong central government, while the Federalist Papers were produced by Founding Fathers pushing the idea for a strong federal government. This is an option for students considering the Major Essay Assignment option pertaining to the United States Constitution.
Format: Harvard Pages: 8
Political Figures in the History of TurkeyOrder instructions from the customer
Choose two famous political figures from Turkish history (list below) and provide a comprehensive analysis on their political personality, work. Legacy etc. and offer a comparison on their contribution to Turkish politics at the end of your work please provide your personal assessment. any two from the list below ismet inonu, Adnan Menderes, Suleyman Demirel, Turgut Ozal, Kenan Evren, Bulent Ecevit, Necmettin Erbakan.
Paper: Article Review 3 Pages
Subject: Psychology and Education
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Paper: Coursework 4 Pages
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Paper: Research Work Title: Should gay/lesbian couples be allowed to adopt children? 7 Pages
Subject: English and Literature
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Paper: Movie Review 1 Page
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